THE OS, THAT HAVE CHANGED OUR LIVES
The F-22 program is developing the next-generation air superiority fighter for the Air Force to counter emerging worldwide threats. It is designed to penetrate enemy airspace and achieve a first-look, first-kill capability against multiple targets. The F-22 is characterized by a low-observable, highly maneuverable airframe; advanced integrated avionics; and aerodynamic performance allowing supersonic cruise without afterburner.
Stealth: Greatly increases survivability and lethality by denying the enemy critical information required to successfully attack the F-22
Integrated Avionics: Allows F-22 pilots unprecedented awareness of enemy forces through the fusion of on- and off-board information
Supercruise: Enhances weapons effectiveness; allows rapid transit through the battlespace; reduces the enemy’s time to counter attack
The F-22’s engine is expected to be the first to provide the ability to fly faster than the speed of sound for an extended period of time without the high fuel consumption characteristic of aircraft that use afterburners to achieve supersonic speeds. It is expected to provide high performance and high fuel efficiency at slower speeds as well.
For its primary air-to-air role, the F-22 will carry six AIM-120C and two AIM-9 missiles. For its air-to-ground role, the F-22 can internally carry two 1,000 pound-class Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM), two AIM-120C, and two AIM-9 missiles. With the Global Positioning System-guided JDAM, the F-22 will have an adverse weather capability to supplement the F-117 (and later the Joint Strike Fighter) for air-to-ground missions after achieving air dominance.
The F-22’s combat configuration is “clean”, that is, with all armament carried internally and with no external stores. This is an important factor in the F-22’s stealth characteristics, and it improves the fighter’s aerodynamics by dramatically reducing drag, which, in turn, improves the F-22’s range. The F-22 has four under wing hardpoints, each capable of carrying 5,000 pounds. A single pylon design, which features forward and aft sway braces, an aft pivot, electrical connections, and fuel and air connections, is used. Either a 600-gallon fuel tank or two LAU-128/A missile launchers can be attached to the bottom of the pylon, depending on the mission. There are two basic external configurations for the F-22:
- Four 600 gallon fuel tanks, no external weapons: This configuration is used when the aircraft is being ferried and extra range is needed. A BRU-47/A rack is used on each pylon to hold the external tanks.
- Two 600 gallon fuel tanks, four missiles: This configuration is used after air dominance in a battle area has been secured, and extra loiter time and firepower is required for Combat Air Patrol (CAP). The external fuel tanks, held by a BRU-47/A rack are carried on the inboard stations, while a pylon fitted with two LAU-128/A rail launchers is fitted to each of the outboard stations.
An all-missile external loadout (two missiles on each of the stations) is possible and would not be difficult technically to integrate, but the Air Force has not stated a requirement for this configuration. Prior to its selection as winner of what was then known as the Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) competition, the F-22 team conducted a 54-month demonstration/ validation (dem/val) program. The effort involved the design, construction and flight testing of two YF-22 prototype aircraft. Two prototype engines, the Pratt & Whitney YF119 and General Electric YF120, also were developed and tested during the program. The dem/val program was completed in December 1990. Much of that work was performed at Boeing in Seattle, Lockheed (now known as Lockheed Martin) facilities in Burbank, Calif., and at General Dynamics’ Fort Worth, Texas, facilities (now known as Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems). The prototypes were assembled in Lockheed’s Palmdale, Calif., facility and made their maiden flight from there. Since that time Lockheed’s program management and aircraft assembly operations have moved to Marietta, Ga., for the EMD and production phases.
The F-22 passed milestone II in 1991. At that time, the Air Force planned to acquire 648 F-22 operational aircraft at a cost of $86.6 billion. After the Bottom Up Review, completed by DOD in September 1993, the planned quantity of F-22s was reduced to 442 at an estimated cost of $71.6 billion.
A $9.55 billion contract for Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) of the F-22 was awarded to the industry team of Boeing and Lockheed Martin in August 1991. Contract changes since then have elevated the contract value to approximately $11 billion. Under terms of the contract, the F-22 team will complete the design of the aircraft, produce production tooling for the program, and build and test nine flightworthy and two ground-test aircraft.
A Joint Estimate Team was chartered in June 1996 to review the F-22 program cost and schedule. JET concluded that the F-22 engineering and manufacturing development program would require additional time and funding to reduce risk before the F-22 enters production. JET estimated that the development cost would increase by about $1.45 billion. Also, JET concluded that F-22 production cost could grow by about $13 billion (from $48 billion to $61 billion) unless offset by various cost avoidance actions. As a result of the JET review the program was restructured, requiring an additional $2.2 billion be added to the EMD budget and 12 months be added to the schedule to ensure the achievement of a producible, affordable design prior to entering production. The program restructure allowed sourcing within F-22 program funds by deleting the three pre-production aircraft and slowing the production ramp. Potential for cost growth in production was contained within current budget estimate through cost reduction initiatives formalized in a government/industry memorandum of agreement. The Defense Acquisition Board principals reviewed the restructured program strategy and on February 11, 1997 the Defense Acquisition Executive issued an Acquisition Defense Memorandum approving the strategy.
The Quadrennial Defense Review Reportwhich was released in mid-May 1997, reduced the F-22 overall production quantity from 438 to 339, slowed the Low Rate Initial Production ramp from 70 to 58, and reduced the maximum production rate from 48 to 36 aircraft per year.
The F-22 EMD program marked a successful first flight on September 7, 1997. The flight test program, which has already begun in Marietta, Georgia, will continue at Edwards AFB, California through the year 2001. Low rate production is scheduled to begin in FY99. The aircraft production rate will gradually increase to 36 aircraft per year in FY 2004, and will continue that rate until all 339 aircraft have been built (projected to be complete in 2013). Initial Operational Capability of one operational squadron is slated for December 2005.
The F-15 fleet is experiencing problems with avionics parts obsolescence, and the average age of the fleet will be more than 30 years when the last F-22 is delivered in 2013. But the current inventory of F-15s can be economically maintained in a structurally sound condition until 2015 or later. None of the 918 F-15s that were in the inventory in July 1992 will begin to exceed their expected economic service lives until 2014.
Specifications Return to Top
|Function||Air superiority fighter|
|Major Subcontractors||(partial list): Northrop Grumman, Texas Instruments, Kidde-Graviner Ltd., Allied-Signal Aerospace, Hughes Radar Systems, Harris, Fairchild Defense, GEC Avionics, Lockheed Sanders, Kaiser Electronics, Digital Equipment Corp., Rosemount Aerospace, Curtiss-Wright Flight Systems, Dowty Decoto, EDO Corp., Lear Astronics Corp., Parker-Hannifin Corp., Simmonds Precision, Sterer Engineering, TRW, XAR, Motorola, Hamilton Standard, Sanders/GE Joint Venture, Menasco Aerospace.|
|Propulsion||two Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 engines|
|Length||62.08 feet, 18.90 meters|
|Height||16.67 feet, 5.08 meters|
|Wingspan||44.5 feet, 13.56 meters|
|Wing Area||840 square feet|
|Horizontal Tailspan||29 feet, 8.84 meters|
|Maximum Takeoff Weight|
|Speed||Mach 1.8 (supercruise: Mach 1.5)|
|First flight:||September 7, 1997|
|Date Deployed||deliveries beginning in 2002
operational by 2004
|DOD’s Projected Unit Prices Before and After Restructuring Production|
|Estimates||Units||Unit cost||Units||Unit cost|
|Unit Costs||Before restructuring||76||$142.6||362||$102.8|
|Restructured without initiatives||70||$200.3||368||$128.2|
|Restructured with initiatives||70||$200.8||368||$92.4|
The supersonic transport aviation that ushered a new era of commercial flight was dead with the fateful Concorde crash in 2000, however, the private jet travel industry may be picking up where the Concorde left off. So, for the billionaire boys’ club, meanwhile, a high-altitude supersonic business-jet concept has emerged to revolutionize the business travel. Designed by Russian graduate students under the direction of their professor, “The Fly” project has taken a supersonic business aircraft KB Tupolev as a basis for the development of the concept. Designed for private use, the jet would accommodate 9 people (6 passengers, 2 pilots and a flight attendant) with a maximum flight time of 4 hours. While meeting the technical and aesthetic requirements, the design has feasible functionality and comfort.
It’s time to completely fix your slow PC!
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How to make a portable handy lie detector in Altoid tin
Step 1Things you’ll need.
You will need some things below for this project.
1. circuit board
2. 10K& resister
- Caracal’s CSR sniper rifle
UAE small arms manufacturer Caracal, a Tawazun subsidiary, is showing its two latest products for the first time here at IDEX. One is the latest member of the successful Caracal pistol series and the other is a sniper rifle.
Caracal H is the latest pistol product, completely designed and developed in the UAE and drawing on the experience and success of the striker-operated Caracal C, F and SC pistols.
The primary aim of the new weapon is to provide the levels of performance achieved by strikeroperated pistols in a hammeroperated gun, thereby gaining the benefits of both.
Chambered for 9x19mm ammunition, Caracal H is the lowest-profile hammer pistol available. It can be held very close to the barrel, improving multishot accuracy by reducing the tendency of the barrel to climb. It can use Caracal’s Quick Sight, or adjustable sights, the latter being of very low profile to avoid snagging in quick-draw situations.
One of the benefits of a striker operated gun is the much shorter lock time when compared with traditional hammer weapons, with a corresponding improvement in accuracy. The Caracal H has reduced the lock time to values comparable to those of striker guns, while retaining the hammer’s benefits of a smooth, single-action release and the ability to be cocked and decocked with a finger or thumb. Development began in January 2010 and early firing trials have drawn considerable praise.
The weapon is expected to be production ready within the year.
Caracal could easily adapt the weapon to 9x21mm ammunition, and is investigating other calibres.
The Caracal Sniper Rifle (CSR) is being shown here in prototype form, development having started only late last year.
The weapon has been designed to be modular and versatile, with comfort and ease of use as important design drivers. Grips and accessories can be switched easily, and the stock adjusted to suit any firing position, without the need for tools. The rifle can be converted to a folding stock weapon, while a bipod can be mounted at any desirable position. It has low-profile sighting mounts for standard barrels, or a higher position for barrels fitted with suppressors.
Currently it is configured for 0.308 Win ammunition, although 0.300 Win (Mag) is an option. Standard magazine capacity is 10 rounds and effective range is about 600m.
Caracal is initially offering two versions, the CSR Basic with full-length (600mm) barrel, and the CSR Compact with a 510mm barrel, intended primarily for law enforcement agencies. CSR is aimed initially at the Middle East market, and should be ready for production by the year end. Caracal (Hall 5, Stand A10) is also developing a semi-automatic 9mm carbine, the CC10. This weapon has a 410mm barrel that can be changed rapidly and a highly ergonomic design. It can accept magazines with 13, 15, 18 or 30-round capacities.
Caracal’s CSR sniper rifle is equipped with a versatile rail system to allow the fitment of a range of accessories
Inventors, Jung Won Seo, Jae-Woo Park, Keong Su Lim, Ji-Hwan Yang and Sang Jung Kang, who are scientists at the Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, have created the world’s first transparent computer chip.
The chip, known as (TRRAM) or transparent resistive random access memory, is similar to existing chips known as (CMOS) or metal-oxide semiconductor memory, which we use in new electronic inventions.The difference is that TRRAM is completely clear and transparent. What is the benefit of having transparency?
“It is a new milestone of transparent electronic systems,” says Jung Won Seo. “By integrating TRRAM with other transparent electronic components, we can create a total see-through embedded electronic systems.”
The technology could enable the windows or mirrors in your home to be used as computer monitors and television screens.
This technology is expected to be available within 3 to 4 years.
A smarter DSLR.
There when you need it.
What happens when you marry an iPhone or SmartPhone with a DSLR ?
It turns out, your iPhone or your smartphone could do many things for you on the go.
In fact, they were built for that, and guess what. There is a socket on your DSLR that you don’t use all the time; the HotShoe socket, or cobra flash socket.
So at Pocketdemo, we’ve created that dock that holds your smartphone in that HotShoe socket.
And because your SmartPhone is right there when you need it, then it is there to work for you automatically.
Let’s start with the 2 most important features it will bring to your DSLR: Geotagging and Sharing pictures
Your DSLR with a 3G/4G connection!
What if you could share a High Quality DSLR picture by E-mail, SMS or via cloud services like iCloud or DropBox ?
That is something you’ve done for years with your camera phone, but never did with your DSLR.
That is about to change when combining the Flash-Dock & EyeFi SD Cards.
EyeFi cards are SD Cards that both store your pictures and feature a WIFI chip.
Using the EyeFi app on the AppStore or Android Market, you can receive in real time the pictures you are taking directly on your SmartPhone. Once on the phone, you can send them to whoever you want through the 3G/4G networks.
With GPX files.
Your smartphone has a built-in GPS and most DSLR don’t.
Did you know that your smartphone could record your tracks into a file called GPX file?
Well, that file is then read by iPhoto, Aperture, Lightroom, Photoshop Elements, Picasa and most photo library softwares and what those softwares do is merging this GPS data with the metadata of pictures you have taken during that trek, walk, expedition, trip, you name it.
It’s that simple! … and it’s FREE
Your smartphone works for you while you take pictures.
Some Add-on devices like BlueSLR plug into your DSLR GPS connector.
Since your Smartphone also has a bluetooth connection, it can send in real time location informations to your camera that in turns will use it to geotag your pictures.
It works the same way as if you had a GPS receiver plugged into your DSLR, only cheaper.
And unlike geotaging using .gpx files, there is no need to do anything in your picture library software as all pictures on your card already contain location informations.
5D Mark II assistant.
Helping the low light AF issue.
For DSLR cameras like the Canon 5D Mark II, low light autofocus can be challenging.
Use your smartphone’s flash to help your camera autofocusing or simply use it as a softer flash than traditional cobra flashes.
Get your DSLR smarter as new apps and accessories become available.
ATK has unveiled this GPS/SAL guided weapon, believed to be the G2M.
ATK is developing a lightweight precision guided munition, compact and light enough to be carried by the dozens or even hundreds by unmanned aerial aircraft. The new glide weapon is packed into a conformal container launcher carried under the wing of the Shadow, fitted on top of the strut root. Upon release the weapon’s fins are extracted and three airfoils pop into place, as the weapon glides on its path to the ground. As the three laser detectors are activated, they seek laser signals reflected from the designated target. Once the laser spot is detected, the weapon’s flight control processor computes the necessary corrections and activates the tail fins to point the weapon on the course homing in on the spot, hitting the target with high precision.
The weapon weighs about six pounds (2.7 kg). Its hand-grenade size warhead makes more than half that weight (about four pounds or 1.8 kg). The resulting effect offers maximum lethality against exposed targets, with minimal collateral damage to their surrounding.
Persistence and immediate response close air support based on such weapons has the potential to transform combined air/ground operations, as UAVs loitering above a ground combat element could continuously support ground forces through sustained combat engagements, without the logistical and operational burden when rotating through rearmament or replenishment cycles. Brigades could rely on their own Small UAVs assets like the Shadow, each carrying four weapons in addition to the standard ISR and radio relay payloads. Larger drones will employ multiple ejector racks packing 12 weapons or more, each loaded rack could be carried under a pylon currently carrying Hellfire missiles. Therefore, an MQ-1A Predator currently carrying two Hellfires will carry 24 of the new weapons. A similar load will be carried by the MQ-5B Hunter, while the MQ-1C Grey Eagle will be able to carry twice that load. The Air Forces’ MQ-9 Reaper will be able to carry 72 units and the A-160 destined for the Special Operations Command will haul over 200 such weapons.
The miniature guided weapon currently under development could, potentially, replace current cluster weapons banned by international treaties. When employed in weapon systems, individually targeted guided weapons could be directed to scatter over the area to focus on specific target location, guided by GPS – or disperse over a specific area in a pattern maximizing the desired effect. Optional carriers such as new cruise missiles, or loitering weapons, will be able to employ such guided submunitions to attack multiple targets along their flight path, on a single mission.